Sentence is a group of words. In English language, there are different kinds of sentences. In this article we will read about 9 kinds of sentences with Examples.
What is a Sentence?
A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. In other words, a meaningful combination of different words is called a sentence.
There are 9 kinds of sentences with Examples. We will discuss them one by one.
9 Kinds of Sentences with Examples:
Here the complete 9 kinds of sentences with examples are given below.
- Simple Sentence
- Compound Sentence
- Complex Sentence
- Compound-Complex Sentence
- Declarative Sentence
- Interrogative Sentence
- Imperative Sentence
- Exclamatory Sentence
- Optative Sentence
- Simple Sentence
A sentence that has only one independent clause is called a simple sentence. The following are simple sentences:
i. Kim waited for the bus.
ii. Sara took the bus.
iii. The bus was late.
iv. He saw the tiger in the Zoo.
v. Two children are playing on the ground.
A sentence, that is made up of two or more simple sentences. An example of compound sentences is as under:
i. Kim waited for the train but the train was late.
ii. It was a rainy day, so they decided to go back.
iii. Although they arrived at the station early in the morning yet the train was late.
iv. I waited for my sister at the bookstall for two hours.
v. She took two hours for completing her homework.
In the above sentences, the use of ‘for’, ‘but’, ‘so’, and ‘yet’ is used to coordinate the two simple sentences.
This sentence contains an independent clause and one or two dependent clauses.
i. He had come to school after they went away.
ii. Because he is a rich man, he can buy everything he wants.
iii. If they come to school early in the morning, they will surely get admission.
iv. I found him busy doing household work whenever I visited her home.
v. Because she is a noble lady, she loves everyone.
A compound sentence includes two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
i. When I grow up, I want to become a doctor, and my mom is proud of me.
ii. I will get to play the game, but first, I have to complete my homework.
iii. Liverpool won the game, but one of its players became injured due to his negligence.
In these sentences, normally the construction of a statement is made. It also provides information about the statement. The words like, “said, says, or say” are not used and in place of these words, “told, tells, or tell” are used.
At times the reported speech is written earlier and the reporting speech is written afterward. However, in indirect speech, the reporting speech is written earlier, and the reported speech is written afterward.
|Kim said to Joe, “You are eating my meal.”||Kim said to Joe that he was eating his meal.|
|She says, “Well, you are right.”||She says that I am quite right.|
|“I shall not go there,” said he.||He said that he would not go there.|
|They said, “We have met the President.”||They said that they had met the President.|
|Sheena said, “No, I shall not go to college.”||Sheena said that she would not go to college.|
In such sentences, while converting these from direct to indirect remember the following points:
i. Do not use “that” in questions.
ii. Change “say, says, said” into “ask, asks, asked” or change them into “inquiries or inquire”.
iii. Do not place the sign of interrogation at the end of the sentence because the sentence does not remain to be interrogative after conversion.
Changing sentences starting with helping verbs.
Use “if” or “whether” while converting starting with helping verbs. “If” or “whether” is placed before the subject of the reported speech. These are the commonly used helping verbs: is, are, am, can, could, may, might, shall, will, was, were, has, have, has, had, etc.
|Jacky said to his girlfriend, “Are you happy here?”||Jacky asked his girlfriend if she was happy there.|
|Sonam said, “Have you ever been to Japan?”||Sonam asked whether I had ever been to Japan.|
|“Had they been taught English at school?”||We asked the students whether they had been taught English at school.|
|The teacher said to Rebecca “Why were you absent last week?”||The teacher asked Rebecca why she was absent last week.|
In these sentences, something is asked to be done or not. Such sentences usually start with the first form of the verb. The sentences in the reported speech are mostly without the subject. While converting into the indirect speech:
i. Do not use “that” while removing the commas.
ii. The verb in the reported speech becomes infinitive after conversion. That is, we use “to” before the verb in the reported speech.
iii. Use “says to, said to” in place of, “asks” or, “asked” in the converted sentence.
iv. Use “forbid” in place of “do not” in negative sentences. Do not use “not” before “forbid” because “not” is included in “forbid”.
|Rebecca said to his servant, “Polish my shoes.”||Rebecca ordered his servant to polish her shoes.|
|His elder brother said to him, “Do not smoke.”||His elder brother forbade him to smoke.|
|The police officer said to him, “Do not run away.”||The police officer forbade him to run away.|
|“Bring a glass of fresh water,” the officer said to the servant.||The officer ordered the servant to bring a glass of fresh water.|
|“Go in and study,” said he to his sons.||He asked his sons to go in and study.|
When the sentences are creating a sense of request, suggestion and advice, use the following words as mentioned below:
i. Suggest or propose (for suggestion or proposal)
ii. Ask or tell (for a soft tone)
iii. Request or beg (for prayer or entreaty)
iv. Advise or urge (advice strongly)
|She said to me, “Please teach me English.”||She requested me to teach her English.|
|Rebecca said to me, “Do not go to him.”||Rebecca asked me not to go to him.|
Such sentences are expressive of sudden joy, surprise, and sorrow. While converting them from the direct to the indirect speech:
i. Replace the words used for the expression of sudden passion, for example, hurrah, alas with “that”.
ii. Remove “said” and place” exclaimed with delight” or “exclaimed with joy.” We place “exclaimed with sorrow: for sorrow or sadness. We place “exclaimed with wonder” for surprise, etc.
iii. At times we use “cry out, confess, declare, pray,” etc, in the converted sentences according to the sense and occasion though their use is limited. For the change of interjections read the following sentences:
|She said, “What a beautiful flower it is!”||She exclaimed with wonder that It was a beautiful flower.|
|She said, “Alas! How foolish I have been.”||She exclaimed regretfully that she had been very foolish.|
|The captain said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”||The captain exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.|
|She said, “Bravo! You have done well.”||She applauded him saying that he had done well.|
|He said, “Goodbye, my sister.”||He bade goodbye to his sister.|
Such sentences are the expression of wishes, desires, prayers, or curses.
i. For prayers, “said is changed into “prayed,” for desires into “wished” and for curses into “cursed”.
ii. For Go whom we address, we use “pray to” and for whom the prayer is said, we use “pray for”.
iii. We do not use “that” before the reported speech.
|He said, “May you get a fist division.”||He wished I might get the first division.|
|She said, “May you live long.”||She prayed I might live long.|
|He said, “May God pardon you.”||He prayed God might pardon me.|
|The students said together, “May our teacher recover soon and live long.”||The students prayed together their teacher might recover soon and live long.|
|She said, “I wish I were more beautiful and intelligent than all other the students in my college.”||She wished she might be more beautiful and intelligent than all the other students in her college.|
|Bobi said to Jacky, “Would that you were brave.”||Bobi wished Jacky were brave.|
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