Conjunction (Coordinating & Subordinating) – ultimate guide

A word used for joining one word to another is called conjunction. Here Coordinating & Subordinating conjunctions have also been discussed.

What is a Conjunction?

A conjunction is a word used for joining one word to another or one sentence to another sentence. In sentences, “And” is the most commonly used conjunction, then comes “but” and then “or”. Apart from these, the following are forms of conjunctions as under.

Simple Conjunctions:

and, if, however, that
then, but, before,
though, although, for, since, till
until, lest, etc.

Conjunctions in pairs:

either: or
neither: nor
not only: but also
Both: and, etc.

Compound Conjunctions:

On condition that,
As though, even if,
In order that, as well as,
as soon as, etc.

Example in sentence:

• Julia could not come to school because she was ill.
• He is older than I am.
• Although he is richyet he is stingy.
• I bought mangoes and apples.
• The man and his beloved wife leading a happy life.
• She turned and left the house.
• She is poor but honest.
• He is both intelligent and hardworking.
• No other than John stole the book.
• The is the same book as I gave you.
• There is no such pen in the market as you demanded.
• I asked him what he was doing.
• London is larger than any other city in the United Kingdom.
• She had hardly written her letter that we reached there.
• Neither any woman nor children were admitted.
• It was such a high tree that no one could climb it.
• Bring me a book and a pencil.
• Although he called, the maid did not come.
• Your father is not so old as mine.
• You must not go if it rains.

Types of Conjunctions:

i) Coordinating
ii) Subordinating
iii) Correlative

i) Coordinating Conjunctions: These conjunctions connect two words, clauses, or grammatically correct phrases.

Example in sentences:

Sam must be in the room or on the terrace.
John went to the market, and Julia went to school.
He is a doctor and his father is a teacher.
He was tired yet he worked full time.
We shall go to the market and buy our clothes.

All the above sentences are independent of each other and can be written separately.

Following are the principal coordinating conjunctions:

  • And
  • but
  • therefore
    also
    hence
    however
    so
    only
    or
    as well as

ii) Subordinating Conjunctions: The conjunctions that join a subordinate class are called subordinating conjunctions. For example, before, till, until, after, as, etc.

Example in sentences:

  • I start my homework after having dinner.
  • I would die before I tell a lie.
  • I will work till midnight.
  • He will reach there before the arrival of guests.
  • The function will start as he reaches there.

iii) Co-relative conjunction: They come in the shape of pair words for joining the words.

Example in sentences:

  • Neither Julia nor John came to the party.
  • He will either come to function or stay at home.
  • Though he is old yet he is strong.
  • No sooner did he utter these words than he was stabbed.
  • I am so tired that I cannot walk.
  • His writing is not so good as yours.
  • Both John and Julia may go.
  • She not only admired but also loved him.
  • He is neither very tall nor very short.

Note: Notice that each member of the pair of conjunctions precedes some part of speech:

Thus: They were ready either for peace or war. (Incorrect)
They were ready either for peace or for war. (correct)

Uses of some important Conjunctions.

i) Since: This conjunction is always preceded by a verb either in the Present Indefinite or Present Perfect and is followed by a verb in the Past Indefinite:

Examples:

  • It is a month since he came here.
  • Four years have passed since my father died.

ii) Unless, until, lest:

Unless means if not.

Examples:

  • Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.
  • Until means upto a definite time.

Example:

I shall not go until he comes.

Lest means so that not and is followed by the word should.

Example:

Take care lest you should fall.

As well as: It adds the word to another.

Example:

He as well as you are guilty.

Exercise No.1:

Insert conjunction in the places left blank.

  1. _ we save, we cannot live happily.
  2. I prefer books __ money.
  3. It is _ a question _ we cannot answer.
  4. They asked her _ she had reached there.
  5. I waited for her, _ she did not come.
  6. He is gentle _ noble.
  7. He is not _ able you think.
  8. She talks _ she was the landlady.
  9. You can give me __ tea coffee.
  10. This is a piece of land __ Harman bought.
  11. He is _ clever _ his brother.
  12. He returned home __ as he had done the work.
  13. I saw the lady _ bought my house.
  14. Take heed _ you should fall.
  15. _ you are diligent, you will not succeed.
  16. No sooner did he see the lion __ he ran away.
  17. _ she is beautiful, she is not proud.
  18. She is a __ girl that meets us at the station.
  19. had I reached home, it began to rain.
  20. He speaks __ he was the principal of the school.

Answers:

  1. Unless 2.to 3.such, as 4.how 5.but
  2. aswell as 7. so, as 8. as if 9. either,or 10. which
    11. so, as 12. as soon as 13. who 14. Lest 15. Although
    16. than 17. Although 18. same 19. Scarcely, when 20. as if

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