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Dash and Hyphen

Dash and Hyphen. The dash is used to indicate a sudden stop or change of thought. while the hyphen is used to connect the parts of a compound word.

What are Dash and Hyphen?

Dash and Hyphen are most probably confusing marks. The sign of both are somehow similar but their function is different. Out of these two terms, firstly we will discuss dash and thereafter hyphen.

Let’s discuss dash an hyphen.

DASH (-)

2. The dash is used to indicate a sudden stop or change of thought.

i. If my mother were alive – but why weep for the past.
ii. I wish I could come earlier – but who could forestall fate?

  1. The dash is used before and after the explanatory words.

i. There was a time – a golden time – when I was young.
ii. There shall come a time – a blessed time – when Kashmir will get freedom.

  1. The dash is used before and after an enumeration.

i. Everything was stolen – utensils, clothes, watch.
ii. Friends, relatives, neighbours – all deserted me.

  1. The dash is used to indicate hesitation.

i. Mr. _ is found of gambling. ii. She is a _

Rich and poor, high and low, old and young – all fought for freedom.

Relatives, friends, neighbours –all come to see me.

HYPHEN (-)

The hyphen is used to connect the parts of a compound word.

i. Dinning-room
ii. Writing-table
iii. Letter-writing contest
iv. Flying-club
v. Passer-by

  1. The hyphen is used to break a word at the end of a line.

i. Sub-stantial
ii. Knowl-edge
iii. In-complete
iv.Bright-en

  1. If the figures more than twenty and less than hundred are written in wrods, the hyphen is placed between them.

i. Twenty-one
ii. Thirty-nine
iii. Ninety-seven

  1. Here is a short list of some words that need hyphens.

i. all forms of in-law: brother-in-law, father-in-law, sister-in-law, mother-in-law
ii. all great compounds: great-aunt, great-grandfather
iii. all vice compounds: vice-chairman; vice-counsel
iv. all elect compounds: mayor-elect; president elect
v. all self compounds: self-taught, self-assured, self-respect

  1. Do not hyphen the following.

i. any ache compound: toothache, headache, backache, neck ache,
ii. any book compound: textbook, notebook

  1. Hyphens are used to separate syllables in words.

i. In-te-ri-or
ii. Plan-e-tar-y
iii. Rhyth-mi-cal

Remember that each syllable in English word must contain at least one vowel. If none of the five regular vowels (a,e,i,o,u) is present, count ‘y’ as a vowel.

  1. Hyphens are used to separate the wrods in the written form of a fraction. For example:

The vote passed by a two-thirds majority.

Exercise:

i. Those are sweet smelling flowers.
Those are sweet-smelling flowers.
ii. Mr. Joe is the Vice Principal of Administer College.
Mr. Joe is the Vice-Principal of Administer College.
iii. Who is the Vice Chancellor of the Administer College.
Who is the Vice-Chancellor of the Administer College.
iv. The Vice Admiral passed away yesterday.
The Vice-Admiral passed away yesterday.
v. His mother in law lives in London.
His mother-in-law lives in London.
vi. Her step mother treats her badly.
Her step-mother treats her badly.
vii. They carried out Commander in chief’s orders at once.
They carried out Commander-in-chief’s orders at once.
viii. Some passers by stopped to enjoy the feats of the juggler.
Some passers-by stopped to enjoy the feats of the juggler.
ix. Twenty five applicants have requested interviews.
Twenty-five applicants have requested interviews.
x. Two thirds of the trees had been cut.
Two thirds of-the-trees had been cut.
xi. Fifty five of the survivors had been able to salvage only one quarter of their personal belongings.
Fifty-five of the survivors had been able to salvage only one-quarter of their personal belongings.
xii. Rescue workers have removed three quarters of the debris.
Rescue-workers have removed three quarters of the debris.

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